Global analysis of the core cell cycle regulators of Arabidopsis identifies novel genes, reveals multiple and highly specific profiles of expression and provides a coherent model for plant cell cycle control
Arabidopsis has over 80 genes encoding conserved and plant-specific core cell cycle regulators, but in most cases neither their timing of expression in the cell cycle is known nor whether they represent redundant and/or tissue-specific functions. Here we identify novel cell cycle regulators, including new cyclin-dependent kinases related to the mammalian galactosyltransferase-associated protein kinase p58, and new classes of cyclin-like and CDK-like proteins showing strong tissue specificity of expression. We analyse expression of all cell cycle regulators in synchronized Arabidopsis cell cultures using multiple approaches including Affymetrix microarrays, massively parallel signature sequencing and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and in plant material using the results of over 320 microarray experiments. These global analyses reveal that most core cell cycle regulators are expressed across almost all tissues and more than 85% are expressed at detectable levels in the cell suspension culture, allowing us to present a unified model of transcriptional regulation of the plant cell cycle. Characteristic patterns of D-cyclin expression in early and late G1 phase, either limited to the re-entry cycle or continuously oscillating, suggest that several CYCD genes with strong oscillatory regulation in late G1 may play the role of cyclin E in plants. Alone amongst the six groups of A and B type cyclins, members of CYCA3 peak in S-phase suggest it is a major component of S-phase kinases, whereas others show a peak in G2/M. 82 genes share this G2/M regulatory pattern, about half being new candidate mitotic genes of previously unknown function.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1QT Cambridge, UK, and 2: Institute of Plant Sciences and Swiss Functional Genomics Center, ETH Zürich, LFW E57.1, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland
Publication date: February 1, 2005