Cost of illness due to typhoid fever in five Asian countries
Objective To generate community‐based estimates of the public (paid by the government) and private (paid by households) costs of blood culture‐confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and Hue, Vietnam.
Methods To measure out‐of‐pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture‐proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90 days after onset of illness. Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom‐up) method.
Results The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non‐hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. Where costs were highest (Hechi, North Jakarta and Karachi), the bulk of the costs of hospitalized cases was borne by families, comprising up to 15% of annual household income.
Conclusion Although these estimates may understate true costs due to the fact that higher quality treatment may have been provided earlier‐than‐usual, this multi‐country community‐based study contributes to evidence on the public and private costs of typhoid fever in developing countries. These cost estimates were used in a cost‐effectiveness analysis of typhoid vaccines and will help policymakers respond to World Health Organization’s updated typhoid fever immunization recommendations.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Research Triangle Institute, Durham, NC, USA 2: Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand 3: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 4: International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea 5: National Institute of Health Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia 6: National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hue, Vietnam 7: Guangxi Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangxi, China 8: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan 9: National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India
Publication date: March 1, 2011