Typhoid fever in Ujung Pandang, Indonesia – high-risk groups and high-risk behaviours
Controls were 42 patients admitted for non-infectious disorders during the same period and individually matched by age and sex. Controls did not have a history of typhoid fever. Interviews took place in hospital. Analysis was by unconditional logistic regression. High-risk groups consisted of those who were single, unemployed and those who had a university education. Median age of cases was 22 years. Consumption of food from warungs (food stalls in the street) was strongly associated with risk (OR = 45). Both cases and controls washed hands after use of the toilet and before meals, but cases used soap significantly less often (OR = 30). The results of this study can be used to take preventive measures against this severe disease of educated and single young adults by targetting them for IEC-activities emphasizing the importance of thorough hand-washing and the need to take care in the selection of street-foods.
Document Type: Original Article
Affiliations: 1: Nijmegen Institute for International Health, Nijmegen University, The Netherlands, 2: Department of Social Geography, Nijmegen University, The Netherlands, 3: Department of Medicine, Stella Maris Hospital, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia
Publication date: November 1, 1997