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Potential loss of unique genetic diversity in tomato landraces by genetic colonization of modern cultivars at a non-center of origin

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We report the genetic diversity of tomato landraces from Myanmar, with reference to worldwide tomato accessions. Ten simple sequence repeat markers were screened and used to create diversity profiles of tomato germplasm. A total of 133 alleles were amplified from the germplasm investigated; alleles specific to landraces from Myanmar were also observed. Higher genetic diversity for the Myanmar landraces highlighted the broad genetic base of tomato germplasm. Principal component analysis showed that most of the Myanmar landraces were divergent from other accessions. The different approaches used to analyse landrace diversity documented the broader genetic base of germplasm from Myanmar, which is a non-center of origin for tomato. Genetic diversity in the landraces may be attributable to diverse production systems used by different ethnic groups in Myanmar, ranging from natural hydroponics in eastern areas, to slash-and-burn fields in mountain areas and shifting cultivation in many parts of the country. The availability of uniform and high-yielding cultivars/hybrids threatens the valuable landraces in Myanmar. We emphasize the need to evaluate tomato germplasm from Myanmar for different traits and sustainable use with simultaneous conservation.
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Keywords: Myanmar; Solanum lycopersicum; genetic diversity; microsatellite; tomato

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Vegetable and Fruit Research and Development Center Hlegu (Yangon Division), Myanmar Agriculture Service, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Myanmar 2: Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan 3: Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory, Genebank, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan

Publication date: 01 April 2008

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