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Role of oral nystatin prophylaxis in cardiac surgery with prolongedextracorporeal circulation

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Duration >120 minutes of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) during cardiopulmonary bypass procedure was associated to an increased risk of candidemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). To evaluate oral nystatin prophylaxis in cardiac surgery considering its exclusive effect on Candida, in the absence of systemic effects and selection of resistant strains to polyene. We conducted an observational study in the postcardiac surgery ICU of Policlinico “Umberto I” of Rome. From January 2014, all patients with a prolonged ECC >120 minutes were systematically treated with oral nystatin (Prophylaxis group). This group was compared with all patients hospitalised in the same ICU, who have not received oral nystatin after ECC >120 minutes (No prophylaxis group). Overall, 672 consecutive patients were analyzed: 318 (47.3%) patients belonged to the no prophylaxis group, and 354 (52.7%) patients to the prophylaxis group. Diagnosis of candidemia was confirmed in 7 (2.2%) patients, all belonged to the no prophylaxis group. At multivariate analysis, oral nystatin prophylaxis showed a protective effect for development of candidemia after cardiac surgery. Oral nystatin prophylaxis, in patients who underwent a ECC >120 minutes, seems to reduce development of candidemia; however, the real efficacy of such prophylaxis approach requires further investigation.
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Keywords: candidemia; extracorporeal circulation; heart surgery; nystatin; prophylaxis

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2017

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