Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompetent patients: two new cases caused by Exophiala jeanselmei and Cladophialophora carrionii
Phaeohyphomycosis is a distinct mycotic infection of the skin or internal organs caused by darkly pigmented (dematiaceous) fungi, which are widely distributed in the environment. Phaeohyphomycosis is most frequently an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients (HIV, corticotherapy, transplant patients) or is frequently associated with chronic diseases and diabetes. The spectrum of the disease is broad and includes superficial infections, onychomycosis, subcutaneous infections, keratitis, allergic disease, pneumonia, brain abscesses and disseminated disease. Rarely, immunocompetent patients may be affected. We describe two new cases of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompetent patients: in the first patient, the causative agent was Exophiala jeanselmei, a common cause of phaeohyphomycosis; and in the second, Cladophialophora carrionii, which could be identified by culture. Cladophialophora carrionii is mainly the aetiological agent of chromoblastomycosis and only rarely the cause of phaeohyphomycosis. The first patient was treated with surgical excision and oral itraconazole, and the second patient responded to oral itraconazole only. Lesions improved in both patients and no recurrence was observed at follow-up visits.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Foundation Alfredo of Matta, Manaus, Brazil 2: Department of Dermatology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Manaus, Brazil 3: Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria 4: Uniceuma, São Luís, Brazil 5: Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria 6: Department of Dermatology, Galliera Hospital, Genoa, Italy
Publication date: May 1, 2011