Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake) promotes non‐rapid eye movement sleep in mice via adenosine A2A receptors
We have demonstrated previously that Japanese sake yeast improves sleep quality in humans. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of sake yeast to induce sleep by monitoring locomotor activity, electromyogram and electroencephalogram in mice. Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (100, 200, and 300 mg kg−1) decreased the locomotor activity by 18, 46 and 59% and increased the amount of non‐rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep by 1.5‐, 2.3‐ and 2.4‐fold (to 37 ± 6, 57 ± 8, and 60 ± 4 min from 25 ± 6 min in the vehicle‐administered group, respectively) in a dose‐dependent manner for 4 h after oral administration. However, Japanese sake yeast did not change the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the electroencephalogram power density during NREM sleep or show any adverse effects, such as rebound of insomnia, during 24 h postadministration and on the next day. An intraperitoneal pretreatment with an adenosine A2A receptor‐selective antagonist, ZM241385 (15 mg kg−1), reduced the amount of NREM sleep of sake yeast‐administered mice to the basal level, without changing basal amount of sleep. Conversely, an A1 receptor‐selective antagonist, 8‐cyclopentyltheophylline (10 mg kg−1), did not affect the sleep‐promoting effect of Japanese sake yeast. Thus, Japanese sake yeast promotes NREM sleep via activation of adenosine A2A but not A1 receptors.
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