Peripheral neuropathy in Tangier disease: A literature review and assessment
Tangier disease (TD) (OMIM#205400) is a rare cause of inherited metabolic neuropathies characterized by marked deficiency of high‐density lipoproteins and accumulation of cholesterol esters in various tissue resulting from reverse cholesterol transport deficiency. We report a case of a patient with TD with multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block who presents with winging scapula, tongue, and asymmetric extremity weakness. We also present a review of all studies published from 1960 to 2017 regarding peripheral neuropathy in TD. Our search identified 54 patients with TD with peripheral neuropathy. Syringomyelia‐like neuropathy subtype (52.4%) was more frequent than multifocal sensorial and motor neuropathy subtype (26.2%), focal neuropathy subtype (19.1%), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy subtype (2.4%). Splenomegaly was the most common (40.7%) clinical manifestation in these patients. The pattern of electrodiagnostic abnormalities are: (1) demyelinating abnormalities were more predominant in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and (2) slowing of motor nerve conduction was more prominent in the intermediate segment than in distal nerve segments. The sural‐sparing pattern was present in 34.6% and conduction block was present in 11.5% of the patients. Our literature review and our case showed the clinical spectrum of TD neuropathy is quite wide and that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non‐uniform demyelinating neuropathies.
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