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Role Of Campylobacter Jejuni In Experimental Allergic Neuritis: A Morphological And Biochemical Study

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Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate if Campylobacter jejuni (C.j.) when used as an adjuvant would be able to produce a different form of Experimental Allergic Neuritis (EAN). We present here some preliminary results. Background: EAN is considered the in vivo model of Guillain-Barrè Syndrome (GBS), which is often preceded by c.j. infection. EAN can be induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine peripheral nerve myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), an emulsion formed by oil-in-water and dead mycobacteria. An adjuvant is usually necessary for the induction of EAN because it enhances the immunogenicity of the antigen. Clinically EAN is characterized by an acute monophasic course and progressive tail and limb weakness. The pathological finding is represented by marked demyelination affecting the roots and the sciatic nerve. Methods: 4 Lewis rats were immunized with an emulsion containing 2 mg of bovine peripheral myelin and C.j. strain Penner 0:41 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). They were compared to 4 controls immunized with the same amount of peripheral myelin in CFA. The clinical course of the disease and the histological pattern of the roots and the sciatic nerve were examined. Anti-peripheral myelin, anti-C.jejuni and anti-GM1 antibodies' reactivity was detected by an ELISA assay. A biochemical study was performed to test the role of cell- and humoral-mediated responses. Results: The Lewis rats immunized with the C.j. as an adjuvant showed a delayed onset and a milder course of disease. Pathology in the roots was characterized by predominant demyelination, whereas the sciatic nerve presented very little signs of damage. Conclusion: This serotype of C.j. appears to be a less effective adjuvant in inducing EAN rather than Mycobacteria. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in GBS.
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Document Type: Abstract

Affiliations: Institute of Neurological and Neurosurgical Sciences, Messina, Italy

Publication date: March 1, 2001

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