Development of Rapid and Economical Colorimetric Screening Method for p‐Phenylenediamine in Variety of Biological Matrices and its Application to Eleven Fatal Cases of p‐Phenylenediamine Poisoning
A rapid colorimetric method for detection of p‐phenylenediamine (PPD) in various biological samples is developed. The o‐cresol test for acetaminophen detection has been modified to detect PPD in blood, urine, gastric contents, and liver. After precipitating protein with trichloroacetic acid solution (2 mL, 10% w/v), biological specimens were required to convert PPD metabolites to PPD by acid hydrolysis. Finally, o‐cresol solution (1 mL, 1% w/v), hydrogen peroxide (200 μL, 3%v/v), and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (0.5 mL) were added in the biological samples. The presence of PPD was indicated by formation of violet color which was turned to bluish green color within 10–15 min. The limit of detection was found to be 2 mg/L in blood, urine, and gastric contents and 2 mg/Kg in liver. This method is also free from any potential interference by p‐aminophenol, acetaminophen, and other amine drugs under test conditions. This method was successfully employed to thirteen fatal cases of PPD poisoning.
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