Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Recovery Efficiencies of Anthrax Spores and Ricin from Nonporous or Nonabsorbent and Porous or Absorbent Surfaces by a Variety of Sampling Methods

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


The 2001 anthrax letter cases brought into focus the need to establish the most effective environmental sampling procedures. Results are presented from two studies aimed at establishing the best procedures for everyday surfaces likely to be contaminated after the release of environmentally stable bioaggressive agents, as exemplified by anthrax spores and ricin. With anthrax spores, contact plates, with mean retrieval rates of 28–54%, performed better than other methods by a wide margin for flat nonporous, nonabsorbent surfaces. They also proved best on flat porous, absorbent materials, although recoveries were low (<7%). For both agents, dry devices (swabs, wipes, Trace Evidence Collection Filters) had universally poor retrieval efficiencies with no significant differences between them. Among moistened devices (wipes, swabs, and Sample Collection and Recovery Devices), wipes were generally best, albeit with considerable cross-over among individual readings (highest mean recoveries for anthrax spores and ricin 5.5% and 2.5%, respectively, off plastic).
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: anthrax spore; bioforensic detection; bioterrorism; deliberate release; forensic science; recovery efficiency; ricin; surfaces

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910. 2: Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, FBI Laboratory, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135.

Publication date: September 1, 2008

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more