Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Ventilatory and Metabolic Demands During Aggressive Physical Restraint in Healthy Adults

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


We investigated ventilatory and metabolic demands in healthy adults when placed in the prone maximal restraint position (PMRP), i.e., hogtie restraint. Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was measured in seated subjects (n=30), in the PMRP, and when prone with up to 90.1 or 102.3 kg of weight on the back. MVV with the heaviest weight was 70% of the seated MVV (122±28 and 156±38 L/min, respectively; p<0.001). Also, subjects (n=27) were placed in the PMRP and struggled vigorously for 60 sec. During the restrained struggle, ventilatory function (E/ MVV) was 44% of MVV in the resting PMRP. While prone with up to 90.1 or 102.3 kg on the back, the decrease in MVV was of no clinical importance in these subjects. Also, while maximally struggling in the PMRP, E was still adequate to supply the ventilatory needs.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: forensic sciences; maximal voluntary ventilation; minute ventilation; oxygen consumption; positional asphyxia

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. 2: Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103.

Publication date: January 1, 2007

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more