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The changes in physicochemical characteristics of fat blends containing hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) and goat milk fat (GMF), before and after chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as catalyst, was evaluated. HPKO : GMF blends were prepared in six ratios: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 (w/w). Melting characteristics were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Peak melting temperatures (Tp) of noninteresterified blends decreased as the percentage of GMF increased. Generally, the interesterified blends showed lower Tpvalues compared to the noninteresterified blends at their respective blending ratios. Decrease in melting enthalpy (Ep) occurred with the increase in percentage GMF in the blends for both the noninteresterified and interesterified blends. Interesterified blends had greater Epvalues than those of the noninteresterified blends at respective ratios. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all blends possessed a β′ polymorph. HPKO : GMF (0:100) was the only blend in which the presence of both β′ and β polymorphs was detected. Chemical interesterification had no effect on polymorphic crystal behavior. Based on solid fat content (SFC) results, eutectic effect did not occur in all HPKO : GMF blends studied. It was shown that the percentage of SFC decreased as percentage of GMF increased. Decrease in percentage SFC of blends was brought about by interesterification. The HPKO : GMF (100:0) blend had the highest percentage of free fatty acid followed by HPKO : GMF (0:100). Interesterification caused a 2- to 3-fold increase in the percentage of free fatty acids compared to noninteresterified blends. Iodine values of the blends increased with an increase in GMF proportion. A rapid increase in iodine was observed in blends containing 0–20% GMF. Interesterification did not have any effect on the iodine value of fat blends.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E. Malaysia

Publication date: September 1, 2005

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