Microstructure and Hardening Mechanism of
0.5 K 0.5 Na 3 Lead‐Free Ceramics with
NbO Doping Sintered in Different Atmospheres
In this study, we used conventional ceramics techniques to prepare lead‐free ceramics (
0.5 K 0.5) Na 3‐ NbO
mol x ( CuO ‐ KNN ) sintered in air atmosphere and argon atmosphere, respectively, and investigated the corresponding hardening characteristics. The microstructure,
xCu hysteresis loops, and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the P–E 2+ ions can play different roles on the hardening mechanism in air atmosphere and argon atmosphere.
The Cu 2+ ions are considered to replace the Cu 5+ ions for forming Nb 2− vacancies, and act as a hardener when sintered in air.
However, when sintered in argon atmosphere, a large portion of O 2+ ions could be reduced into Cu + ions and then replaced by Cu +.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2012