In many polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics, domain switching during the poling process leads to the development of a macroscopic polarization and piezoelectric behavior. Traditionally, poling involves the application of electric fields across two parallel electrodes. In the present work, a radial mechanical compressive stress is applied transverse to the electric field, increasing the potential for domain alignment during poling by taking advantage of ferroelasticity. Experiments demonstrate that poling of lead zirconate titanate using a combination of an electric field and a transverse mechanical compressive stress increases the d33 coefficient from 435 to 489 pC/N. Using neutron diffraction and pole figure inversion methods, the degree of non-180° domain switching is described using pole density distributions of the tetragonal c-axis (002). The degree of 002 domain alignment parallel to the electric field after the electromechanical poling process increases from 1.30 multiples of a random distribution (mrd) to >1.40 mrd at stresses exceeding 40 MPa.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400
Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64287, Germany
May 1, 2008