In this study, we report on the synthesis of nanopowders of ferroelectric Bi3.5Nd0.5Ti3O12 ceramic at temperatures below 500°C via a simple chemical method using citric acid as a solvent. The calcined powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Heating the as-dried powders in air first leads to crystallization of the Bi2Ti2O7 phase at ∼310°C, followed by crystallization of the perovskite Nd-doped Bi4Ti3O12 phase at ∼490°C as suggested by the peaks in the DSC analysis and confirmed by the evolution of phases in XRD patterns of the powders calcined at various temperatures. TEM of particles calcined at 550°C for 1 h in air showed an average particle size of 50–60 nm. The temperature dependence of capacitance of nanopowders calcined at 700°C for 1 h in air showed a Curie temperature of ∼615°C evincing a ferroelectric transition.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India
Publication date: April 1, 2007