Cytokine-mediated control of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of small intestinal epithelial cells
Cytokines with anti-inflammatory properties have been implicated in the prevention of inappropriate immune activation by commensal bacteria in the intestinal tract. Here, we analysed receptor expression, cellular signalling, and the inhibitory activity of interleukin (IL)-4, -10, -11, and -13 as well as of transforming growth factor-β on lipopolysaccharide-mediated small intestinal epithelial cell activation. Only IL-4 and IL-13 had a significant inhibitory effect on chemokine secretion and nitric oxide (NO) production in differentiated and polarized cells. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction of primary intestinal epithelial cells obtained by laser-microdissection confirmed expression of the type II IL-4 receptor consisting of the IL-4 receptor α and the IL-13 receptor α1. Also, IL-4 or IL-13 led to rapid signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 phosphorylation, diminished inducible NO synthase expression, and enhanced the antagonistic arginase 1 activity. In conclusion, cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 affect intestinal epithelial cells and exhibit a modulating activity on Toll-like receptor-4-mediated epithelial cell activation.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden 2: Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Clinic of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Publication date: November 1, 2007