Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

J. Cosmet. Sci., 59, 399–418 (September/October 2008)

A study of the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics (‘kohls’) used in Qatar and Yemen

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


This study looks at the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics (‘kohls’) used in Qatar and Yemen. Of especial interest was how many samples in each country contain the toxic element lead. In Qatar 19 observably different kohl samples were obtained, and in Yemen ten such samples obtained. The analytical techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to study the samples. For the samples from Qatar, six of the 19 (32%) contained galena (lead sulfide, PbS)—all as the main component. However, for the samples from Yemen, five of the ten (50%) samples contained galena as the main component, with another three having it present as a minor component. Overall, the other main components were found to be: amorphous carbon (3), iron oxides (hematite, Fe2O3; and goethite, FeO(OH)) (1), quartz (SiO2) (1), sassolite (H3BO3) (5), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) (1), and zincite (ZnO) (7).
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Abstract

Affiliations: 1: Centre for Medical History, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, Devon, U.K. 2: Department of Chemistry, School of BioSciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, Devon, U.K. 3: Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter in Cornwall, Tremough Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, Cornwall, U.K. 4: Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 17 666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates 5: College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Box 35, Al Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman

Publication date: October 1, 2009

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more