J. Cosmet. Sci., 59, 399–418 (September/October 2008)
A study of the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics (‘kohls’) used in Qatar and Yemen
This study looks at the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics (‘kohls’) used in Qatar and Yemen. Of especial interest was how many samples in each country contain the toxic element lead. In Qatar 19 observably different kohl samples were obtained, and in Yemen ten such samples obtained. The analytical techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to study the samples. For the samples from Qatar, six of the 19 (32%) contained galena (lead sulfide, PbS)—all as the main component. However, for the samples from Yemen, five of the ten (50%) samples contained galena as the main component, with another three having it present as a minor component. Overall, the other main components were found to be: amorphous carbon (3), iron oxides (hematite, Fe2O3; and goethite, FeO(OH)) (1), quartz (SiO2) (1), sassolite (H3BO3) (5), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) (1), and zincite (ZnO) (7).
Document Type: Abstract
Affiliations: 1: Centre for Medical History, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, Devon, U.K. 2: Department of Chemistry, School of BioSciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, Devon, U.K. 3: Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter in Cornwall, Tremough Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, Cornwall, U.K. 4: Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 17 666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates 5: College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Box 35, Al Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman
Publication date: October 1, 2009