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Differential toxicity on monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic Cells: a new tool to differentiate allergens from irritants?

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Phenotypic activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells has been proposed as an in vitro alternative assay to discriminate potential sensitizers from irritants, but the sensitivity of the assay remains controversial. In this study, we first determined the dynamic range of expression of activation/maturation markers on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells cultured in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor ß (TGFβ)? On day three of culture, most monocytes had already differentiated into dendritic cells that expressed low levels of costimulatory molecules especially in the presence TGFβ-treatment of 3-day-old TGFβ-treated monocyte-derived dendritic cells with several chemicals at sub-toxic concentrations induced significant phenotypic changes for all the strong and mild sensitizers tested, whereas the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect. However, a very large variability was observed among the experiments. Most interestingly, we could show here for the first time that at concentrations sub-toxic for monocyte-derived dendritic cells all the allergens tested induced monocyte apoptosis within 2 days of culture. In contrast, sodium lauryl sulfate displayed similar toxicity on monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells and these results were confirmed with other irritants such as benzoic acid or methylsalicylate. Although testing of far more chemicals is required, these results indicate that differential toxicity of chemicals to monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells could be a rapid, simple and valuable tool to differentiate sensitizers from irritants.
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Document Type: Abstract

Affiliations: 1: Université Lyon 1, EA 37-32, Service de Dermatologie, Pavillon R, Hôpital E. Herriot, F-69003, Lyon, France 2: YSL Beauté, 20-26 boulevard du Parc, 92521 Neuilly/Seine, France

Publication date: October 1, 2007

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