Pump‐and‐Treat Groundwater Remediation Using Chlorine/Ultraviolet Advanced Oxidation Processes
Comparative studies of the use of chlorine/ultraviolet (Cl2/UV) and hydrogen peroxide/ultraviolet (H2O2/UV) Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from groundwater in a pump‐and‐treat application were conducted for the first time at the full‐scale operational level at two water treatment facilities in Northern California. In these studies, aqueous chlorine replaced hydrogen peroxide in the AOP treatment step, where the oxidant is exposed to UV light to produce highly reactive radical species that degrade groundwater contaminants. TCE removal rates as a function of initial chlorine dose and pH were then determined. At the site where the natural pH of the water was 7.1, TCE was removed (to a concentration of less than 0.5 µg/L) for nearly every chlorine dose point tested, and pH adjustment slightly enhanced the treatment process at this facility. The second site had a high natural pH of 7.7, and here, TCE was not completely removed for any chlorine dose up to 5.7 mg/L, although TCE removal did increase when the chlorine dose increased between 0.9 and 3.6 mg/L. Residual TCE remaining in the water post‐Cl2/UV was readily removed using active carbon filtration, which is part of the overall treatment train at this facility. These studies also verified that Cl2/UV AOP did not interfere with the photolysis of N‐nitrosodimethylamine or result in an effluent acutely toxic toward Ceriodaphnia dubia. Comparative economic analysis revealed that the chemical costs associated with Cl2/UV AOP were 25 to 50% of the costs associated with in place H2O2/UV AOP treatment.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 May 2015