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A new vicariance model for Amazonian endemics

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It is unlikely that ice age climates of the Amazon were sufficiently arid to fragment the forest as required by the Haffer refugial hypothesis. However, glacial Amazon climates were colder and had reduced CO2 concentrations that would have had their strongest effects on the biota in the elevated areas stipulated to have been refugia. If local endemicity of butterflies or birds records Pleistocene speciation, this is because glacial climates provided cool, CO2 starved islands in a sea of continuous forest.
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Keywords: Amazonia; Pleistocene history; climate change; refugial hypothesis; speciation; vicariance

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: April 1, 1998

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