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Opioid receptors mediate inotropic and depressor effects of apelin in rats with 2K1C‐induced chronic renovascular hypertension

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Apelin receptors (APJ) cross‐talk with other G‐protein‐coupled receptors. However, the role of APJ interaction with opioid receptors (OPR) on the cardiovascular effects of apelin in hypertension is not clear. Renovascular hypertension was induced by placing a Plexiglas clip on the left kidney of rats. After 16 weeks, F13A (an APJ antagonist), naloxone (a general OPR inhibitor), and nor‐binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor‐BNI; a selective inhibitor of KOR) were given prior to injections of apelin at doses of 40 and 60 μg/kg. The arterial systolic/diastolic blood pressure and left ventricular contractility responses were then evaluated. The arterial systolic/diastolic blood pressure in sham and 2K1C rats was 110/71 mm Hg and 171/124 mm Hg, respectively. The hypotensive effects of apelin at both doses were inhibited by F13A and naloxone. Nor‐BNI completely inhibited the effects of apelin 40 on arterial pressure, and decreased the effects of 60 μg/kg. KOR inhibition also prevented the compensation for the decrease in the left ventricle +dp/dt max and −dp/dt max caused by apelin 60. The simultaneous inhibition of OPR and APJ reduced arterial pressure and increased cardiac contractility. Findings showed that the OPR, particularly KOR, mediate the inotropic, lusitropic, and depressor effects of apelin. The interaction of the OPR and APJ augments the inotropic and vasodepressor effects of apelin. This interaction may have potential clinical applications in cardiac failure since opioids are currently used in the treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke, and apelin has been introduced as a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular complications.
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Keywords: apelin receptors; kappa opioid receptors; myocardial contractility; receptor interaction; renovascular hypertension

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2018

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