Pathophysiology and therapeutics of premature ageing in chronic kidney disease, with a focus on glycative stress
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major concern in public health. The pathology of CKD includes premature ageing in the kidney and vessels, which results in a high risk of cardiovascular events and end‐stage renal disease. Many factors are involved in premature ageing in CKD, including hormonal imbalance, glycative stress, nitrogenous metabolites, and oxidative stress. Of these, the most important role in premature ageing in CKD is played by glycative stress, namely a massive and unfavourable glycation state, since the kidney is responsible for the clearance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In an animal model, overexpression of glyoxalase I (GLO‐1), a detoxifier of AGEs, has been found to alleviate premature ageing in the kidney and vessels. Both lifestyle changes and drug therapy have shown promise in overcoming premature ageing. Promising drug therapies include a GLO‐1 activator and an absorbent against glycotoxin and nitrogenous metabolites.
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