Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Extra-adrenal production of corticosteroids

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


1. The major corticosteroids aldosterone and cortisol (corticosterone in rodents) are secreted from the adrenal cortex under the regulation of the renin–angiotensin system and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.

2. In addition to their accepted roles in such processes as blood pressure regulation, glycogenesis, hepatic glyconeogenesis and immunosuppression, the corticosteroids have been implicated in the development of cardiac fibrosis, modulation of hippocampal neuron excitability, memory formation and neurodegeneration.

3. The advent of sensitive molecular biological techniques has produced a wealth of evidence to support the existence of extra-adrenal corticosteroidogenic systems. Most attention has been paid to the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system, where the full array of enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of corticosteroids from cholesterol has been identified.

4. Although the evidence for local corticosteroid production is strong, the quantities of steroid would be small compared with adrenal production. Therefore, it is still a matter of debate as to whether extra-adrenal corticosteroids are of any physiological significance. This will depend on factors such as local concentration, proximity to target cells and, possibly, to tissue-specific control mechanisms.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: 11β-hydroxylase; aldosterone synthase; brain; glucocorticoids; heart; mineralocorticoids

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: Blood Pressure Group, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK

Publication date: July 1, 2003

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more