Biodiversity Differences between Managed and Unmanaged Forests: Meta-Analysis of Species Richness in Europe
Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species richness between unmanaged and managed forests throughout Europe. We explored the response of different taxonomic groups and the variability of their response with respect to time since abandonment and intensity of forest management. Species richness was slightly higher in unmanaged than in managed forests. Species dependent on forest cover continuity, deadwood, and large trees (bryophytes, lichens, fungi, saproxylic beetles) and carabids were negatively affected by forest management. In contrast, vascular plant species were favored. The response for birds was heterogeneous and probably depended more on factors such as landscape patterns. The global difference in species richness between unmanaged and managed forests increased with time since abandonment and indicated a gradual recovery of biodiversity. Clearcut forests in which the composition of tree species changed had the strongest effect on species richness, but the effects of different types of management on taxa could not be assessed in a robust way because of low numbers of replications in the management-intensity classes. Our results show that some taxa are more affected by forestry than others, but there is a need for research into poorly studied species groups in Europe and in particular locations. Our meta-analysis supports the need for a coordinated European research network to study and monitor the biodiversity of different taxa in managed and unmanaged forests.
Keywords: abandono de bosque manejado; conservation policy; diversidad taxonómica; forest management abandonment; intensidad de manejo; management intensity; meta-analysis; meta-análisis; política de conservación; riqueza de especies; species richness; taxonomic diversity
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden 2: Department of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. stny. 1/C., H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 3: Cemagref, UR EFNO, Domaine des Barres, F-45290 Nogent-sur-Vernisson, France 4: Department Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany 5: Alterra Wageningen UR, Centre for Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands 6: Cemagref, UR EMGR, 2 rue de la Papeterie BP 76, F-38402 Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France 7: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden 8: Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Stefanikova Street 3, SK-814 99 Bratislava, Slovakia 9: Hortobágy National Park Directorate, P.O. Box 216, H-4002 Debrecen, Hungary 10: Instituto de Recursos Naturales, CSIC IRN-CCMA-CSIC, Serrano 115, E-28006 Madrid, Spain 11: Department of Botany, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 71, H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary 12: Ecological Institute, Debrecen University, P.O. Box 71, H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary 13: Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland 14: Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Lai Street, 40 Tartu EE-51005, Estonia 15: Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
Publication date: February 1, 2010