Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig‐type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae
Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host‐specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host‐microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease‐related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host‐specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host‐specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus‐type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus‐dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus‐dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact.
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