Role of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor alpha in the expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation‐related genes in chickens
Liver is the most important target organ for investigation of lipid metabolism in domestic fowls. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of fatty acid oxidation in chicken liver. In mammals, proliferator‐activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor, plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of PPARα‐induced gene expression involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation in chickens in vivo and in vitro. WY14643, a PPARα agonist, significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) and acyl‐coenzyme A oxidase (ACO), but not long‐, middle‐ and short‐chain acyl‐coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCAD, MCAD and SCAD, respectively), hydroxyacyl‐coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD), and PPARα itself in chicken hepatoma cells. In contrast, WY14643 significantly increased the mRNA levels of CPT1a, ACO, MCAD, SCAD, HAD and PPARα in human hepatoma cells. The mRNA levels of CPT1a and ACO in the liver were significantly increased by 6 h of fasting in chickens, whereas the mRNA levels of LCAD, MCAD, SCAD and HAD were unchanged. These results suggest that, unlike in mammals, CPT1a and ACO might play an important role in PPARα‐induced fatty acid oxidation in the liver of chickens.
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