Effects of utilization of local food by‐products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep
Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by‐products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by‐products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by‐products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by‐products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02–4.44% and 1.75–2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by‐products can be most suitable for TMR silage.
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