Immunomodulatory effects of Alliums and Ipomoea batata extracts on lymphocytes and macrophages functions in White Leghorn chickens: In vitro study
We previously described that supplementary garlic, onion and purple sweet potato (PSP) enhance humoral immune response in White Leghorn chickens. In the present in vitro study, we investigated the effects of garlic (GE), onion (OE) and PSP (PSPE) extracts on proliferation, interleukin (IL)‐2 and interferon (INF)‐γ gene expression of stimulated lymphocytes. The effects on microbicidal activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) productions of stimulated peritoneal macrophages were studied as well. The results showed that GE augmented Concanavalin A (ConA)‐induced splenocytes (4, 8 and 16 µg/mL) and thymocytes (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL) proliferations, and gene expression of IL‐2 (8 and 16 µg/mL) and INF‐γ (16 µg/mL). None of the examined extracts had mitogenic effect nor stimulated bursacytes response to phorbol 12‐myristate 13‐acetate (PMA). Macrophages exhibited superior microbicidal activity and ROS production with GE at 4 and 8 µg/mL and with OE at 25.6 µg/mL. None of the extracts showed stimulatory effects on NO production. The extracts showed concentration‐dependent inhibitory effects on all measured parameters at higher concentrations. Taken together, it is likely that garlic has direct stimulatory effects on immune cell functions, whereas the in vitro inhibitory effects of onion and PSP were likely attributed to high flavonoid contents.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
Publication date: January 1, 2012