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Development and survivorship of Carpophilus hemipterus (L.), Carpophilus mutilatus Erichson and Carpophilus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) over a range of constant temperatures

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Eggs of Carpophilus humeralis (F.) and Carpophilus mutilatus Erichson developed at constant temperatures from 20–37.5°C, while Carpophilus hemipterus (L.) completed development at temperatures from 20–42.5°C. Carpophilus hemipterus completed larval and pupal development at all temperatures up to and including 40°C. Carpophilus mutilatus reached adulthood at 37.5°C, but C. humeralis was only able to complete egg to adult development at temperatures up to 32.5°C. Rates of development changed in a linear fashion with temperature. The development of C. hemipterus eggs and larvae was faster at all temperatures than the other two species (P < 0.05). Developmental duration from egg to adult for the three species ranged from 47–65 days at 20°C to 14–18 days at 32.5°C. The fastest development was recorded for C. hemipterus at 37.5°C (13.4 days). Lower developmental zeroes (DZ) were similar for the eggs, larvae and pupae of each species, ranging between 14.0–16.0°C. Estimates of DZ for egg–adult development were 15.3°C (mutilatus), 15.4°C (humeralis) and 14.6°C (hemipterus). Egg to adult development required 260.4 (hemipterus), 297.6 (humeralis) or 320.0 (mutilatus) degree-days. Survivorship was greatest for all species at temperatures between 25–30°C, with the larval stage suffering most mortality from higher or lower temperatures. The use of degree-day estimates to predict timing of adult generations of Carpophilus spp. is discussed with respect to the management of these pests in stone fruit orchards in southern Australia.
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Keywords: Carpophilus spp; degree-days; development; developmental threshold; survivorship; temperature

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, 24106 North Bunn Road, Prosser, Washington 99350, USA.

Publication date: July 1, 2000

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