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Function of cardiac M3 receptors

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Summary

1 Since the initial identification of the M3 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M3-mAChR) in the heart, there have been increasing interest and advances in studies on the pathophysiological roles of M3-mAChR in the heart. Recent studies from several laboratories have provided compelling and solid evidence in support of the important roles of M3-mAChR in regulation and maintenance of cardiac function and in generation and progression of heart disease as well.

2 The functions of the cardiac M3-mAChR revealed thus far include (i) M3-mAChR regulation of heart rate and cardiac repolarization, (ii) modulation of inotropic effects, (iii) cytoprotection against ischaemic injuries of myocardium, (iv) regulation of cell-to-cell communication, and (v) participation in generation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation.

3 Signal transduction mechanisms underlying these pathophysiological functions have also been studied, which have allowed us to get insight into the following mechanistic aspects. (i) M3-mAChR activates a delayed rectifying K+ current IKM3 to participate in cardiac repolarization, negative chronotropic actions, and anti-dysrhythmic (suppresses ischaemic dysrhythmias) as well as pro-dysrhythmic (facilitates atrial fibrillation) actions. (ii) M3-mAChR interacts with gap-junctional channel connexin 43 to maintain cell–cell communication and excitation propagation. (iii) M3-mAChR regulates intracellular phosphoinositide hydrolysis to improve cardiac contraction and haemodynamic function. (iv) M3-mAChR activate anti-apoptotic signalling molecules, enhances endogenous antioxidant capacity, and diminishes intracellular Ca2+ overload, all of which contribute to protecting the heart against ischaemic injuries.

4 This article provides an overview of the potential roles of the M3-mAChR in parasympathetic control of heart function under normal physiological conditions and in the setting of a variety of pathological processes including heart failure, myocardial ischaemia and dysrhythmias.
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Keywords: M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; M3-mediated K+ current; cardiomyocytes; choline; dysrhythmia; ischaemia

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger East, Montreal, QC H1T 1C8

Publication date: January 1, 2007

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