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What do we mean by bias, Englishes, Englishes in testing, and English language proficiency?

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The authors of “Whose norms? International proficiency tests in English”( Davies, Hamp‐Lyons and Kemp, 2003) raise important issues and suggest interesting avenues for future research. As is usually true when a new line of research emerges, defining terms is fundamental. Four sets of terms seem to me to need clarification here: bias; Englishes(in general); Englishes in testing; and English language proficiency.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Second Language Studies, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, 1890 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Email:, Email: [email protected]

Publication date: 01 May 2004

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