What do we mean by bias, Englishes, Englishes in testing, and English language proficiency?
The authors of “Whose norms? International proficiency tests in English”( Davies, Hamp‐Lyons and Kemp, 2003) raise important issues and suggest interesting avenues for future research. As is usually true when a new line of research emerges, defining terms is fundamental. Four sets of terms seem to me to need clarification here: bias; Englishes(in general); Englishes in testing; and English language proficiency.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Second Language Studies, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, 1890 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Email:, Email: [email protected]
Publication date: 01 May 2004