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The Generating Function for the Airy Point Process and a System of Coupled Painlevé II Equations

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For a wide class of Hermitian random matrices, the limit distribution of the eigenvalues close to the largest one is governed by the Airy point process. In such ensembles, the limit distribution of the kth largest eigenvalue is given in terms of the Airy kernel Fredholm determinant or in terms of Tracy–Widom formulas involving solutions of the Painlevé II equation. Limit distributions for quantities involving two or more near‐extreme eigenvalues, such as the gap between the kth and the lth largest eigenvalue or the sum of the k largest eigenvalues, can be expressed in terms of Fredholm determinants of an Airy kernel with several discontinuities. We establish simple Tracy–Widom type expressions for these Fredholm determinants, which involve solutions to systems of coupled Painlevé II equations, and we investigate the asymptotic behavior of these solutions.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2018

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