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# CMV Biorthogonal Laurent Polynomials: Perturbations and Christoffel Formulas

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Quasidefinite sesquilinear forms for Laurent polynomials in the complex plane and corresponding CMV biorthogonal Laurent polynomial families are studied. Bivariate linear functionals encompass large families of orthogonalities such as Sobolev and discrete Sobolev types. Two possible Christoffel transformations of these linear functionals are discussed. Either the linear functionals are multiplied by a Laurent polynomial, or are multiplied by the complex conjugate of a Laurent polynomial. For the Geronimus transformation, the linear functional is perturbed in two possible manners as well, by a division by a Laurent polynomial or by a complex conjugate of a Laurent polynomial, in both cases the addition of appropriate masses (linear functionals supported on the zeros of the perturbing Laurent polynomial) is considered. The connection formulas for the CMV biorthogonal Laurent polynomials, its norms, and Christoffel–Darboux kernels, in all the four cases, are given. For the Geronimus transformation, the connection formulas for the second kind functions and mixed Christoffel–Darboux kernels are also given in the two possible cases. For prepared Laurent polynomials, i.e., of the form $L\left(z\right)={L}_{n}{z}^{n}+\dots +{L}_{-n}{z}^{-n}$, ${L}_{n}{L}_{-n}\ne 0$, these connection formulas lead to quasideterminantal (quotient of determinants) Christoffel formulas for all the four transformations, expressing an arbitrary degree perturbed biorthogonal Laurent polynomial in terms of 2n unperturbed biorthogonal Laurent polynomials, their second kind functions or Christoffel–Darboux kernels and its mixed versions. Different curves are presented as examples, such as the real line, the circle, the Cassini oval, and the cardioid. The unit circle case, given its exceptional properties, is discussed in more detail. In this case, a particularly relevant role is played by the reciprocal polynomial, and the Christoffel formulas provide now with two possible ways of expressing the same perturbed quantities in terms of the original ones, one using only the nonperturbed biorthogonal family of Laurent polynomials, and the other using the Christoffel–Darboux kernels and its mixed versions, as well. Two examples are discussed in detail.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: April 1, 2018

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