Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

The combination of ecological and case–control data

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

Summary. 

Ecological studies, in which data are available at the level of the group, rather than at the level of the individual, are susceptible to a range of biases due to their inability to characterize within-group variability in exposures and confounders. To overcome these biases, we propose a hybrid design in which ecological data are supplemented with a sample of individual level case–control data. We develop the likelihood for this design and illustrate its benefits via simulation, both in bias reduction when compared with an ecological study and in efficiency gains relative to a conventional case–control study. An interesting special case of the design proposed is the situation where ecological data are supplemented with case-only data. The design is illustrated by using a data set of county-specific lung cancer mortality rates in the state of Ohio from 1988.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Ecological bias; Efficiency; Outcome-dependent sampling; Two-phase sampling; Within-area confounding

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, USA 2: University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2008

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more