Utilization of Soybeans and Their Components through the Development of Textured Soy Protein Foods
Textured soy protein (TSP), an extruded and fibrous-structured product, is mainly used as meat analog or extender. Meat alternatives are third in sales in the U.S. soy food marketplace. A primary problem that limits the incorporation of more TSP into products is the undesirable “beany” flavor. The objective of this study was to develop the best formulation of TSP and vegetable-based flavors to produce consumer acceptable “chicken” or “shrimp” flavored TSP using heat application processes. Four different types of commercial TSP (containing an average of 51% protein) strip-shaped extruded with a narrow die (STRIP-N) or with a wider die (STRIP-W), shred-shaped (SHRED) strips, and 1-cm crouton-shaped bits (BITs) were used. The TSPs were baked or deep-fat fried after soaking in 5 different commercial vegetable-based powered, liquid, or oil-based flavors ranged from 0% to 22.3% concentrations. Four descriptive analyses with a minimum of 14 trained panelists were utilized to evaluate the attributes of the finished TSP. Proximate, color, and texture analyses were performed on each TSP product. All treatments were statistically analyzed. Both instrumental and sensory tests demonstrated that BIT had a significantly higher crispness than other TSP. The powder type of chicken flavor used for a consumer panel had a more intense flavor than others with the optimum hydration time, 15 min. A consumer test with 125 people was performed with the highest chicken flavored (22.3%) fried and baked BIT. Overall, 66% of the total consumers preferred the fried BIT to the baked BIT, and 31% preferred the baked BIT.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Authors Katayama and Wilson are with the Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept., Iowa Sate Univ., Ames IA 50011, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Wilson ( )., Email: [email protected]
Publication date: April 1, 2008