Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera
The first comprehensive analysis of higher‐level phylogeny of the order Hymenoptera is presented. The analysis includes representatives of all extant superfamilies, scored for 392 morphological characters, and sequence data for four loci (18S, 28S, COI and EF‐1α). Including three outgroup taxa, 111 terminals were analyzed. Relationships within symphytans (sawflies) and Apocrita are mostly resolved. Well supported relationships include: Xyeloidea is monophyletic, Cephoidea is the sister group of Siricoidea + [Xiphydrioidea + (Orussoidea + Apocrita)]; Anaxyelidae is included in the Siricoidea, and together they are the sister group of Xiphydrioidea + (Orussoidea + Apocrita); Orussoidea is the sister group of Apocrita, Apocrita is monophyletic; Evanioidea is monophyletic; Aculeata is the sister group of Evanioidea; Proctotrupomorpha is monophyletic; Ichneumonoidea is the sister group of Proctotrupomorpha; Platygastroidea is sister group to Cynipoidea, and together they are sister group to the remaining Proctotrupomorpha; Proctotrupoidea s. str. is monophyletic; Mymarommatoidea is the sister group of Chalcidoidea; Mymarommatoidea + Chalcidoidea + Diaprioidea is monophyletic. Weakly supported relationships include: Stephanoidea is the sister group of the remaining Apocrita; Diaprioidea is monophyletic; Ceraphronoidea is the sister group of Megalyroidea, which together form the sister group of [Trigonaloidea (Aculeata + Evanioidea)]. Aside from paraphyly of Vespoidea within Aculeata, all currently recognized superfamilies are supported as monophyletic. The diapriid subfamily Ismarinae is raised to family status, Ismaridae stat. nov.
© The Will Henning Society 2011.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40502, USA 2: Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA 3: Natural History Museum of Denmark, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Museet—Bygn.11, 2-4-429, Denmark 4: Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA 5: Species Information Centre, Swedish Agricultural University, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden 6: Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas, 319 Agriculture Building, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA 7: Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA 8: Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, 2301 Gardner Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 7613, USA 9: Department of Entomology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden 10: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany
Publication date: February 1, 2012