A comparative study for detecting CYP3A induction by CYP3A probe drugs and endogenous markers in cynomolgus monkeys
CYP3A probe drugs such as midazolam and endogenous markers, and plasma 4β‐hydroxycholesterol (4β‐OHC) and urinary 6β‐hydroxycortisol‐to‐cortisol ratios (6β‐OHC/C) have been used as markers of CYP3A induction in cynomolgus monkeys, as with humans. However, there is limited information on their sensitivity and ability to detect CYP3A induction, as most studies were evaluated only at a high dose of the inducer, rifampicin (RIF; 20 mg/kg). In the present study, the CYP3A induction by RIF over a range doses of 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg (n = 4) was examined using CYP3A probe drugs (midazolam, triazolam and alprazolam) and the plasma and urinary endogenous CYP3A markers (4β‐OHC and 6β‐OHC/C). The sensitivity and relationship for detecting CYP3A induction was compared among the markers. Four days repeated oral administration of rifampicin to cynomolgus monkeys reduced the area under the plasma concentration–time curve of all CYP3A probe drugs in a rifampicin dose‐dependent manner. Although the endogenous CYP3A markers (4β‐OHC and 6β‐OHC/C) were also changed for the middle (2 mg/kg) and high (20 mg/kg) doses of rifampicin, the fold‐changes were relatively small, and CYP3A induction could not be detected at the lowest dose of rifampicin (0.2 mg/kg). In conclusion, CYP3A probe drugs are more sensitive for detecting CYP3A induction than endogenous CYP3A markers in cynomolgus monkeys, even for a short experimental period.
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