Glass Ceilings versus Sticky Floors: Evidence from Southeast Asia and an International Update
Using counterfactual decompositions combined with quantile regression, we investigate the pattern of gender wage differentials in Asian and Latin American countries and combine the findings with existing evidence for European and other mostly developed countries. While in the group of Latin American countries glass ceilings are prevalent, no clear evidence of glass ceilings is found in the group of Asian countries where, generally, sticky floors or a mixed pattern is the norm. The findings are robust with as well as without occupation controls. In addition, analysis by sector points to glass ceilings in the public sector in most countries, while in the private sector the patterns vary. Combining the new evidence from the present study with existing evidence (in total we consider 60 countries), a comprehensive global picture of gender wage differentials is provided. Possible explanations for differences in patterns of gender wage differentials are discussed.
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