Evolution of the Jugal/Zygomatic Bones
This issue of the Anatomical Record is the second of a two‐volume set on the zygoma (also called the cheek bone, the zygomatic bone, the malar, or the jugal, the latter term being used in vertebrates other than mammals). The zygoma is an important component of the craniofacial skeleton, in which the zygoma is a connection between the midfacial and the cranial skeletons; has a functional role as the origin of one of the masticatory muscles, the masseter muscle, and several facial muscles; has been considered as an essential buttress of the facial skeleton for resisting masticatory forces; and has importance for determining phylogenetic relationships. In humans, the zygoma is also of aesthetic significance for facial appearance, and its restoration following trauma has resulted in a large clinical literature. In this second half of the special issue on the zygoma, a series of papers discuss studies related to evolution of the zygoma and related parts of the craniofacial skeleton throughout the vertebrates, and in particular in human evolution. There are also a series of articles discussing variation of the zygoma in modern humans. This article is an overview in which we discuss the primary findings of these studies and some of their implications. Anat Rec, 300:12–15, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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