The Periosteum of the Zygomatic Arch: Vascularization and Growth
In addition to conveying the forces of attaching muscles and ligaments to the zygomatic and temporal bones, the arch periosteum is responsible for lateral apposition and medial resorption during the growth period. In this contribution, we describe the vasculature of the zygomatic arch in young pigs (Sus scrofa dom.) in order to understand the relationship of osseous and periosteal vessels to each other, to surrounding tissues, and to patterns of modeling. Subjects 2–6 weeks of age were perfused with vascular fill; some also received the vital bone label calcein. Whole mounts were prepared of the decalcified bony arch and of its lateral periosteum. Undecalcified arches were plastic‐embedded and thick‐sectioned. Additional observations on cell replication were made using material from a previous study. The osseous and periosteal vascular supplies were largely independent, joined only by a fine network at the tissue interface. Osseous vessels entered the medial side of the arch through clusters of nutrient foramina. The intraosseous branching pattern resembled the direction of appositional growth, which in turn describes the disposition of bony trabeculae in older pigs. In contrast, vessels arrived at the periosteum via muscles and ligaments and thus its perfusion may partially depend on functional activity. The open weave of periosteal vessels bore little similarity to bone architecture, especially for the temporal bone, but the appositional lateral periosteum showed indications of angiogenesis, whereas the thinner, resorptive periosteum on the medial side featured composite, possibly fusing vessels at the bone surface. Anat Rec, 299:1661–1670, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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