Arctigenin Anti‐Tumor Activity in Bladder Cancer T24 Cell Line Through Induction of Cell‐Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti‐tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell‐cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin‐V‐FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32–7.01% and 3.07–7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose‐dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen‐activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti‐tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Anatomy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China 2: Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
Publication date: August 1, 2012