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Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis: A nationwide population‐based study

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In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population‐based cohort study including 687 adult (≥15 years) SM patients diagnosed during 1997–2012. A comparison cohort of 68,700 subjects from the general Danish population who were alive and without SM at the given SM subject's diagnosis were age‐ and gender‐matched. Outcomes were a new diagnosis of solid cancer, venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, or fracture. For solid cancers the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–2.8) with a 10‐year absolute risk (AR) in the SM‐cohort of 12.6% (95% CI 9.4–16.3). Specifically, we found a HR of 7.5 (95% CI 4.4–13.0) for melanoma and a HR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.7–3.5) for non‐melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). For VTE we found a HR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2–3.0), with a 10‐year AR of 3.9% (95% CI 2.3–6.1); for MI a nonsignificant increased HR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.3), with a 10‐year AR of 1.8% (95% CI 0.9–3.2); and for stroke a HR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.3) with a 10‐year AR of 4.6% (95% CI 2.8–6.9). The HR for anaphylaxis was 7.2 (95% CI 5.3–9.9), and the 10‐year AR was 3.1% (95% CI 1.9–4.9). For osteoporosis the HR was 3.6 (95% CI 2.7–4.6) with a 10‐year AR of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2–9.8). For fractures the HR was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9–1.6) and the 10‐year AR was 5.9% (95% CI 3.9–8.4). SM patients are at increased risk of solid cancers – especially melanoma and NMSC—and cardiovascular disease. The risk of anaphylaxis and osteoporosis is clearly increased in SM, though absolute risk was low in this population‐based study. The fracture‐risk was only slightly increased. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1069–1075, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2016

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