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Science and Technological Understanding of Nano-ionic Resistive Memories (RRAM)

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Ion transport in the solid state has been regarded as imperative with regards to high energy density electrochemical storage devices (for instance, batteries) for efficient electric mobility. Of late, there is another niche application involving ion transport in solid state which manifested itself as nonvolatile memory namely memristor. Such memories are classified under the emerging category of novel solid state Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAM). In 2008, HP labs unveiled the first practical memristor device employing TiO2 and non-stoichiometric titania as bilayer stack structure and on both sides of two titania layers platinum (pt) are used as blocking electrode for ions. It is understood that switching fundamentals are correlated to the filamentary conduction in metal oxide memristors owing to the formation and rupture of the filament-like nano-dendrites, one of the key mechanisms widely accepted in the arena of memristor analysis. This paper critically reviews the fundamental materials being employed in novel memristor memories. It is believed that solid electrolytes (fast ion conductors) are the fundamental building blocks of these memories. We have chosen a few archetypes, solid electrolytes are considered and their impact on the state-of-art research in this domain is discussed in detail. An indepth analysis of the fundamentals of resistive switching mechanism involved in various classes of memristive devices viz., Electrochemical Metallization Memories (ECM) and Valence Change Memories (VCM) is elucidated. A few important applications of memristors such as neuristor and artificial synapse in neuromorphic computing are reviewed as well.
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Keywords: Electrochemical Metallization Memories (ECM); Memristor; Valence Change Memories (VCM); nanoionics; neuromorphic computing; resistive switching

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: December 1, 2019

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