Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

The Effects of D-aspartate on Neurosteroids, Neurosteroid Receptors, and Inflammatory Mediators in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Buy Article:

$68.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

Objective: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used model for multiple sclerosis. The present study has been designed to compare the efficiencies of oral and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of D-aspartate (D-Asp) on the onset and severity of EAE, the production of neurosteroids, and the expression of neurosteroid receptors and inflammatory mediators in the brain of EAE mice.

Methods: In this study, EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice treated with D-Asp orally (D-Asp-Oral) or by IP injection (D-Asp-IP). On the 20th day, brains (cerebrums) and cerebellums of mice were evaluated by histological analyses. The brains of mice were analyzed for: 1) Neurosteroid (Progesterone, Testosterone, 17β-estradiol) concentrations; 2) gene expressions of cytokines and neurosteroid receptors by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and 3) quantitative determination of D-Asp using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Further, some inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were identified in the mouse serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results: Our findings demonstrated that after D-Asp was administered, it was taken up and accumulated within the brain. Further, IP injection of D-Asp had more beneficial effects on EAE severity than oral gavage. The concentration of the testosterone and 17β-estradiol in D-Asp-IP group was significantly higher than that of the control group. There were no significant differences in the gene expression of cytokine and neurosteroid receptors between control, D-Asp-IP, and D-Asp-Oral groups. However, IP treatment with D-Asp significantly reduced C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 and MMP-2 serum levels compared to control mice.

Conclusion: IP injection of D-Asp had more beneficial effects on EAE severity, neurosteroid induction and reduction of inflammatory mediators than oral gavage.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: CCL-2; D-aspartate; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; IL-6; TNF-α; matrix metalloproteinase-2; neurosteroids

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2019

More about this publication?
  • This journal is devoted to timely reviews of experimental and clinical studies in the field of endocrine, metabolic, and immune disorders. Specific emphasis is placed on humoral and cellular targets for natural, synthetic, and genetically engineered drugs that enhance or impair endocrine, metabolic, and immune parameters and functions. Topics related to the neuroendocrine-immune axis are given special emphasis in view of the growing interest in stress-related, inflammatory, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more