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Dopamine Transporter Ligands: Recent Developments and Therapeutic Potential

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The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a target for the development of pharmacotherapies for a number of central disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, depression, and stimulant abuse as well as normal aging. Considerable effort continues to be devoted to the development of new ligands for the DAT. In this review, we present some of the more interesting ligands developed during the last few years from the 3-phenytropane, 1,4-dialkylpiperazine, phenylpiperidine, and benztropine classes of DAT uptake inhibitors as well as a few less studied miscellaneous DAT uptake inhibitors. Studies related to the therapeutic potential of some of the more studied compounds are presented. A few of the compounds have been studied as pharmacotherapies for Parkinson's disease, ADHD, and obesity. However, most of the drug discovery studies have been directed toward pharmacotherapies for stimulant abuse (mainly cocaine). A number of the compounds showed decreased cocaine maintained responding in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine. One compound, GBR 12,909, was evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
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Keywords: 1,4-dialkylpiperazine; 3-phenyltropane; Dopamine transporter; benztropine; phenylpiperidine

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, P.O. Box 12194 / 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Publication date: September 1, 2006

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