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Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Dispiro[oxindole-cyclohexanone]- pyrrolidines

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Background: Spirooxindoles are privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry, which were identified through Wang’s pioneering work as inhibitors of MDM2-p53 interactions.

Objective: To design and synthesize 2,6-diarylidenecyclohexanones and dispiro[oxindole-cyclohexanone]- pyrrolidines having potential antitumor effect.

Methods: Dispiro[oxindole-cyclohexanone]-pyrrolidines 6a-h were synthesized in a regioselective manner via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of 2,6-diarylidenecyclohexanones 3a-h, isatin, and sarcocine. Compounds 6a-h were alkylated to give (7-10)a,b. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activity and cytotoxic selectivity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), breast fibrosis cell line (MCF10a), and placental cancer cell line (JEG-3). Molecular modeling inside the MDM2 binding site was performed using AutoDock4.2.

Results: Synthesized compounds showed antitumor activity comparable to tamoxifen and compounds 3a,b,f,g and 9a,b showed selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells but reduced toxicity toward MCF-10a cells. Molecular modelling shows that both classes of synthesized compounds are predicted to fit the deep hydrophobic cleft on the surface of MDM2 and mimic the interactions between p53 and MDM2.

Conclusion: The synthesized compounds have antitumor activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and JEG-3. Few compounds showed a selective cytotoxic effect and may have the potential to inhibit MDM2 and stimulate p53. In the future, studies regarding the optimization of medicinal chemistry as well as mechanistic studies will be conducted to enhance the inhibition effect of identified compounds and elucidate their mechanism of action.

Keywords: 1; 3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions; MDM2; Spiro-oxindoles; antitumor; diarylidenecyclohexanones; molecular modeling; p53

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2022

This article was made available online on October 6, 2021 as a Fast Track article with title: "Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Dispiro[oxindole-cyclohexanone]- pyrrolidines".

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