Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Free Content Lipoic Acid Metabolism of Plasmodium - A Suitable Drug Target

Download Article:
(PDF 305.4 kb)
α-Lipoic acid (6,8-thioctic acid; LA) is a vital co-factor of α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. In recent years it was shown that biosynthesis and salvage of LA in Plasmodium are necessary for the parasites to complete their complex life cycle. LA salvage requires two lipoic acid protein ligases (LplA1 and LplA2). LplA1 is confined to the mitochondrion while LplA2 is located in both the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. LplA1 exclusively uses salvaged LA and lipoylates α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase and the H-protein of the glycine cleavage system. LplA2 cannot compensate for the loss of LplA1 function during blood stage development suggesting a specific function for LplA2 that has yet to be elucidated. LA salvage is essential for the intra-erythrocytic and liver stage development of Plasmodium and thus offers great potential for future drug or vaccine development.

LA biosynthesis, comprising octanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) : protein N-octanoyltransferase (LipB) and lipoate synthase (LipA), is exclusively found in the apicoplast of Plasmodium where it generates LA de novo from octanoyl-ACP, provided by the type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II) pathway also present in the organelle. LA is the co-factor of the acetyltransferase subunit of the apicoplast located pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which generates acetyl-CoA, feeding into FAS II. LA biosynthesis is not vital for intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium, but the deletion of several genes encoding components of FAS II or PDH was detrimental for liver stage development of the parasites indirectly suggesting that the same applies to LA biosynthesis.

These data provide strong evidence that LA salvage and biosynthesis are vital for different stages of Plasmodium development and offer potential for drug and vaccine design against malaria.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Lipoic acid salvage; Plasmodium; apicoplast; chemotherapy; lipoate synthase (LipA); lipoic acid biosynthesis; malaria; octanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP); type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II); vaccine development

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Current Pharmaceutical Design publishes timely in-depth reviews covering all aspects of current research in rational drug design. Each issue is devoted to a single major therapeutic area. A Guest Editor who is an acknowledged authority in a therapeutic field has solicits for each issue comprehensive and timely reviews from leading researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and academia.

    Each thematic issue of Current Pharmaceutical Design covers all subject areas of major importance to modern drug design, including: medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, drug targets and disease mechanism.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more