The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer's Disease: Facts and Hypotheses
Unlike other neuroinflammatory disorders, like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis, little is still known of the role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is partly due to the poor availability of animal models that are really relevant to the human disease, and to the complexity of AD as compared to other neurological states. Nevertheless, the available data indicate that endocannabinoids are likely to play in this disorder a role similar to that suggested in other neurodegenerative diseases, that is, to represent an endogenous adaptive response aimed at counteracting both the neurochemical and inflammatory consequences of β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperactivity, possibly the most important underlying cause of AD. Furthermore, plant and synthetic cannabinoids, and particularly the non-psychotropic cannabidiol, might also exert other, non-cannabinoid receptor-mediated protective effects, including, but not limited to, anti-oxidant actions. There is evidence, from in vivo studies on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, also for a possible causative role of endocannabinoids in the impairment in memory retention, which is typical of AD. This might open the way to the use of cannabinoid receptor antagonists as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of cognitive deficits in the more advanced phases of this disorder. The scant, but nevertheless important literature on the regulation and role of the endocannabinoid system in AD, and on the potential treatment of this disorder with cannabinoids and endocannabinoid-based drugs, are discussed in this mini-review.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples), Italy.
Publication date: 01 August 2008
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