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HSP27 Protects the Blood-Brain Barrier Against Ischemia-Induced Loss of Integrity

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Loss of integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in stroke victims initiates a devastating cascade of events including extravasation of blood-borne molecules, water, and inflammatory cells deep into brain parenchyma. Thus, it is important to identify mechanisms by which BBB integrity can be maintained in the face of ischemic injury in experimental stroke. We previously demonstrated that the phylogenetically conserved small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) protects against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Here we show that HSP27 transgenic overexpression also maintains the integrity of the BBB in mice subjected to tMCAO. Extravasation of endogenous IgG antibodies and exogenous FITC-albumin into the brain following tMCAO was reduced in transgenic mice, as was total brain water content. HSP27 overexpression abolished the appearance of TUNEL-positive profiles in microvessel walls. Transgenics also exhibited less loss of microvessel proteins following tMCAO. Notably, primary endothelial cell cultures were rescued from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by lentiviral HSP27 overexpression according to four viability assays, supporting a direct effect on this cell type. Finally, HSP27 overexpression reduced the appearance of neutrophils in the brain and inhibited the secretion of five cytokines. These findings reveal a novel role for HSP27 in attenuating ischemia/reperfusion injury - the maintenance of BBB integrity. Endogenous upregulation of HSP27 after ischemia in wild-type animals may exert similar protective functions and warrants further investigation. Exogenous enhancement of HSP27 by rational drug design may lead to future therapies against a host of injuries, including but not limited to a harmful breach in brain vasculature.
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Keywords: Endothelial cell; HSP25; HSPB1; heat shock protein; microvessel; stroke; tight junction; vascular

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2013

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  • CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in neurological and central nervous system (CNS) disorders e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will contain a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in neurological and CNS disorders. As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for neurological and CNS drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.
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